peashooter85:

Garum —- The official condiment of the ancient Roman Empire

In the ancient Roman world a salty, oily condiment made from fermented fish guts took the Roman Empire by storm.  Called garum, it became an important commodity all over the empire, providing fats, protein, salts, vitamin, minerals, and most importantly flavor to places in the empire were little could be found.  Originally a Greek creation, the Roman obsession with garum would propel the fish sauce to become the most popular condiment in the Roman Empire.

Our modern society is a very wasteful society, we take it for granted that we can just use something and throw it away.  However, our ancestors had a completely different attitude.  Nothing went to waste and everything was put to use.  “Waste not, want not” was not simply a saying, but a mantra that meant life or death, prosperity or disaster for ancient people’s.  So if an animal was slaughtered, it was guaranteed that every part was consumed or used in some way. 

Garum was a result of this culture.  When the fishmongers gutted the daily catch, the guts were not merely thrown away, rather they were gathered by the garum maker.  The guts were coated with salt, layered in large urns, and left out to heat in the sun for one to three months.  During this time the ingredients would liquefy and ferment, forming a thick paste.  When ready, a clear amber colored fluid would separate for the thicker material.  This clear fluid was pure garum, and was skimmed, bolted, and sold for a hefty price.  The skimming of more fluid would lead to cloudier and less pure forms of garum, which were much cheaper.  The remaining paste was called “allum”, and was sold as a budget “poor mans garum sauce”.  All grades of garum were flavored with different herbs and spices, depending on local tastes.

Because the Roman Empire was centered in the Mediterranean, the Roman economy was also heavily dependent on fishing.  Numerous fisheries and ports dotted all along the Mediterranean coast, and where there fisheries, there were garum makers.  Usually, however, the garum makers were relegated to the outskirts of a city, as the process of garum making tended to create an enormous stench.  Garum itself became one of the most important commodities of the Roman world, being shipped all over Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.  It was issued regularly as rations for Roman soldiers and was even accepted as money.  Garum was also valued for its medicinal value; used to treat dog bites, diarrhea, ulcers, dysentery, to remove unwanted hair, and to remove freckles.

Alas the fall of the Roman Empire would lead to the fall of garum, especially as Germanic peoples who turned their noses at fermented fish sauce settled Europe and carved out kingdoms from the former Roman Empire.  Today garum still can be found, though only produced by small business who cater to specialty gourmet foods.  At around the same time the Romans were making garum, peoples in Southeast Asia were making a remarkably similar fish sauce called  nước mắm, which today is still widely popular in Vietnamese, Thai, and Cambodian cuisine.

(Source: Wikipedia, via bleep0bleep)

lady-tyrell:

enjolux:

theplaceinsidetheblizzard:

elgin-marbles:

coleytangerina:

Some graffiti found in Pompeii’s ruins: 
Weep, you girls. My penis has given you up. Now it penetrates men’s behinds. Goodbye, wondrous femininity!
Restituta, take off your tunic, please, and show us your hairy privates.
I screwed the barmaid.
Apollinaris, the doctor of the emperor Titus, defecated well here.
I screwed a lot of girls here.
Sollemnes, you screw well!
Theophilus, don’t perform oral sex on girls against the city wall like a dog.
Nice to see nothing has changed.


There is a website with all of the graffiti

I love this.




I am laughing so hard


someone basically wrote “secundus is gay” on the wall humankind has not changed at all

lady-tyrell:

enjolux:

theplaceinsidetheblizzard:

elgin-marbles:

coleytangerina:

Some graffiti found in Pompeii’s ruins: 

  • Weep, you girls. My penis has given you up. Now it penetrates men’s behinds. Goodbye, wondrous femininity!
  • Restituta, take off your tunic, please, and show us your hairy privates.
  • I screwed the barmaid.
  • Apollinaris, the doctor of the emperor Titus, defecated well here.
  • I screwed a lot of girls here.
  • Sollemnes, you screw well!
  • Theophilus, don’t perform oral sex on girls against the city wall like a dog.

Nice to see nothing has changed.

image

There is a website with all of the graffiti

I love this.

I am laughing so hard

image

someone basically wrote “secundus is gay” on the wall humankind has not changed at all

(Source: creepyabandonedplaces, via musainrules)

archaeologicalnews:

image

As archaeologists continue to clear dirt and stone slabs from the entrance of a huge tomb in Greece, excitement is building over what excavators may find inside.

The monumental burial complex — which dates back to the fourth century B.C., during the era of…

dreadpiratekhan:

A Swedish woman hitting a neo-Nazi protester with her handbag. The woman was reportedly a concentration camp survivor. [1985]

Volunteers learn how to fight fires at Pearl Harbor [c. 1941 - 1945]

A 106-year old Armenian woman protecting her home with an AK-47. [1990]

Komako Kimura, a prominent Japanese suffragist at a march in New York. [October 23, 1917]

Erika, a 15-year-old Hungarian fighter who fought for freedom against the Soviet Union. [October 1956]

Sarla Thakral, 21 years old, the first Indian woman to earn a pilot license. [1936]

Voting activist Annie Lumpkins at the Little Rock city jail. [1961]  
(freakin’ immaculate)
Source with more wonderful photos

dreadpiratekhan:


A Swedish woman hitting a neo-Nazi protester with her handbag. The woman was reportedly a concentration camp survivor. [1985]

Volunteers learn how to fight fires at Pearl Harbor [c. 1941 - 1945]

A 106-year old Armenian woman protecting her home with an AK-47. [1990]

Komako Kimura, a prominent Japanese suffragist at a march in New York. [October 23, 1917]

Erika, a 15-year-old Hungarian fighter who fought for freedom against the Soviet Union. [October 1956]

Sarla Thakral, 21 years old, the first Indian woman to earn a pilot license. [1936]

Voting activist Annie Lumpkins at the Little Rock city jail. [1961]  

(freakin’ immaculate)

Source with more wonderful photos

(via gingerhaze)

"As Arnold points out, there is an otherwise inexplicable shift in direction in the Piccadilly line passing east out of South Kensington. “In fact,” she writes, “the tunnel curves between Knightsbridge and South Kensington stations because it was impossible to drill through the mass of skeletal remains buried in Hyde Park.” I will admit that I think she means “between Knightsbridge and Hyde Park Corner”—although there is apparently a “small plague pit dating from around 1664” beneath Knightsbridge Green—but I will defer to Arnold’s research.

But to put that another way, the ground was so solidly packed with the interlocked skeletons of 17th-century victims of the Great Plague that the Tube’s 19th-century excavation teams couldn’t even hack their way through them all. The Tube thus had to swerve to the side along a subterranean detour in order to avoid this huge congested knot of skulls, ribs, legs, and arms tangled in the soil—an artificial geology made of people, caught in the throat of greater London."

prunescholar:

creepy romcom about two historians who meet during a year-and-a-half long course on Chalcolithic Mesopotamia: 500 days of Sumer

(via arganthone)

europeanarchitecture:

Temple of Vesta, Tivoli, Italy (by Roger B. Ulrich)

europeanarchitecture:

Temple of Vesta, Tivoli, Italy (by Roger B. Ulrich)

(via last-of-the-romans)

penisanxiety:

Mostly I’m like ‘fuck the south’ but whenever anyone not from the south is like ‘fuck the south’ I’m like ‘the south was economically and developmentally crippled by the civil war in ways that are absolutely viscerally present in everyday life and the lack of literacy and food and health in general that runs rampant in the rural south at large can be attributed to the assassination of Lincoln and failure of the government through reconstruction due to bitterness over the succession which perpetuates the confederate flag waving redneck stereotype that feels the government has failed them resulting in the republican ideal of the self reliant, self made man especially in states whose economies revolved around plantations and desperately needed assistance weening off of the free labor that slaves provided that was never provided which could have ultimately had an incredibly positive effect on the social development regarding race on the whole of the world. I blame Andrew Johnson and you can go FCUK YOURSELF’

(via musainrules)

historicalmatters:

Roman Emperors, Nerva-Antonine Dynasty and the Five Good Emperors

Top Left: Nerva, Twelfth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for one and a half years from 96-98 CE. Nerva died of natural causes and was immediately deified by Trajan. Nerva most notably ensured a smooth transition before his death which laid the foundation for the Nerva-Antonine Dynasty. To ensure a smooth transition he adopted Trajan beginning a line of adoptive ascension which will last until Commodus in 161 CE.
Top Right: Trajan, Thirteenth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for almost twenty years from 98-117 CE. Trajan died of natural causes followed by a stroke and was thereafter deified. Trajan is noted for his large expansion of the Roman Empire and the conquest of Parthia. Before dying he adopted Hadrian to ensure a peaceful transition of power. He was so popular that the Roman Senate bestowed upon him the name Optimus(the best). Following the example of Nerva he adopted his successor Hadrian.

Middle Left: Hadrian, Fourteenth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for twenty one years from 117-138 CE. Hadrian died of natural causes related to heart failure. Hadrian is best known for the wall at the limits of the Roman Empire in Britannia named Hadrian’s Wall. Hadrian was deified by his successor upon his death. Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius(his successor) with the agreement that Pius would eventually adopt both Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.
Extreme Middle: Antoninus Pius, Fifteenth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for twenty two and a half years from 138-161 CE. Pius died of natural causes related to fever. Pius notably introduced a new principle to law, that no person accused should be treated as guilty before trial. As agreed from the terms of his own adoption to Hadrian, Pius adopted Aurelius and Verus.
Middle Right: Marcus Aurelius, Sixteenth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for nineteen years from 161-180 CE. Marcus Aurelius died of natural causes at the age of 59. Originally nominated to take the throne after the death of adoptive parent Pius, he would not accept without equal power being awarded his adoptive brother Lucius Verus and as such they were co-rulers until the death of Verus. Aurelius is noted as one of the great stoic philosophers of antiquity.

Bottom Left:  Lucius Verus, Seventeenth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for eight years from 161-169 CE. Verus died of natural causes related to plague. Notably Verus was Co-Emperor with Aurelius until his death(because he died first, and was not originally nominated by the senate he is recognized as the Seventeenth Emperor).
Bottom Right: Commodus, Eighteenth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for fifteen years from  177-192 CE. Commodus was assassinated when Narcissus strangled him to death. Commodus was the first son to ascend to his fathers throne since Titus in almost a century before. Notably Commodus is the first emperor ‘born in purple’(in his fathers reign) and would remain that way until 377. Originally Commodus was to be struck from history but the emperor Septimius Severus will have him deified when he gets to power.

End of the Dynasty: An important idea to be noted is the adoptive ideas of ancient Romans. By tradition an adoption was as equally recognized and respected as if the child were born of blood, it is not considered as much a legal process as is today. The assassination of Commodus occurred on New Years Eve 192 CE, it ushered in a new era as the next emperor(Pertinax) is like wise assassinated. Following the killing of Pertinax is the year of five emperors, a return to violent disposal of emperors and instability in the Roman government.

(via last-of-the-romans)

pheylan13:

*snort*

(via elucipher)