"As Arnold points out, there is an otherwise inexplicable shift in direction in the Piccadilly line passing east out of South Kensington. “In fact,” she writes, “the tunnel curves between Knightsbridge and South Kensington stations because it was impossible to drill through the mass of skeletal remains buried in Hyde Park.” I will admit that I think she means “between Knightsbridge and Hyde Park Corner”—although there is apparently a “small plague pit dating from around 1664” beneath Knightsbridge Green—but I will defer to Arnold’s research.

But to put that another way, the ground was so solidly packed with the interlocked skeletons of 17th-century victims of the Great Plague that the Tube’s 19th-century excavation teams couldn’t even hack their way through them all. The Tube thus had to swerve to the side along a subterranean detour in order to avoid this huge congested knot of skulls, ribs, legs, and arms tangled in the soil—an artificial geology made of people, caught in the throat of greater London."

prunescholar:

creepy romcom about two historians who meet during a year-and-a-half long course on Chalcolithic Mesopotamia: 500 days of Sumer

(via arganthone)

europeanarchitecture:

Temple of Vesta, Tivoli, Italy (by Roger B. Ulrich)

europeanarchitecture:

Temple of Vesta, Tivoli, Italy (by Roger B. Ulrich)

(via last-of-the-romans)

penisanxiety:

Mostly I’m like ‘fuck the south’ but whenever anyone not from the south is like ‘fuck the south’ I’m like ‘the south was economically and developmentally crippled by the civil war in ways that are absolutely viscerally present in everyday life and the lack of literacy and food and health in general that runs rampant in the rural south at large can be attributed to the assassination of Lincoln and failure of the government through reconstruction due to bitterness over the succession which perpetuates the confederate flag waving redneck stereotype that feels the government has failed them resulting in the republican ideal of the self reliant, self made man especially in states whose economies revolved around plantations and desperately needed assistance weening off of the free labor that slaves provided that was never provided which could have ultimately had an incredibly positive effect on the social development regarding race on the whole of the world. I blame Andrew Johnson and you can go FCUK YOURSELF’

(via musainrules)

historicalmatters:

Roman Emperors, Nerva-Antonine Dynasty and the Five Good Emperors

Top Left: Nerva, Twelfth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for one and a half years from 96-98 CE. Nerva died of natural causes and was immediately deified by Trajan. Nerva most notably ensured a smooth transition before his death which laid the foundation for the Nerva-Antonine Dynasty. To ensure a smooth transition he adopted Trajan beginning a line of adoptive ascension which will last until Commodus in 161 CE.
Top Right: Trajan, Thirteenth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for almost twenty years from 98-117 CE. Trajan died of natural causes followed by a stroke and was thereafter deified. Trajan is noted for his large expansion of the Roman Empire and the conquest of Parthia. Before dying he adopted Hadrian to ensure a peaceful transition of power. He was so popular that the Roman Senate bestowed upon him the name Optimus(the best). Following the example of Nerva he adopted his successor Hadrian.

Middle Left: Hadrian, Fourteenth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for twenty one years from 117-138 CE. Hadrian died of natural causes related to heart failure. Hadrian is best known for the wall at the limits of the Roman Empire in Britannia named Hadrian’s Wall. Hadrian was deified by his successor upon his death. Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius(his successor) with the agreement that Pius would eventually adopt both Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.
Extreme Middle: Antoninus Pius, Fifteenth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for twenty two and a half years from 138-161 CE. Pius died of natural causes related to fever. Pius notably introduced a new principle to law, that no person accused should be treated as guilty before trial. As agreed from the terms of his own adoption to Hadrian, Pius adopted Aurelius and Verus.
Middle Right: Marcus Aurelius, Sixteenth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for nineteen years from 161-180 CE. Marcus Aurelius died of natural causes at the age of 59. Originally nominated to take the throne after the death of adoptive parent Pius, he would not accept without equal power being awarded his adoptive brother Lucius Verus and as such they were co-rulers until the death of Verus. Aurelius is noted as one of the great stoic philosophers of antiquity.

Bottom Left:  Lucius Verus, Seventeenth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for eight years from 161-169 CE. Verus died of natural causes related to plague. Notably Verus was Co-Emperor with Aurelius until his death(because he died first, and was not originally nominated by the senate he is recognized as the Seventeenth Emperor).
Bottom Right: Commodus, Eighteenth Emperor of the Roman Empire reigned for fifteen years from  177-192 CE. Commodus was assassinated when Narcissus strangled him to death. Commodus was the first son to ascend to his fathers throne since Titus in almost a century before. Notably Commodus is the first emperor ‘born in purple’(in his fathers reign) and would remain that way until 377. Originally Commodus was to be struck from history but the emperor Septimius Severus will have him deified when he gets to power.

End of the Dynasty: An important idea to be noted is the adoptive ideas of ancient Romans. By tradition an adoption was as equally recognized and respected as if the child were born of blood, it is not considered as much a legal process as is today. The assassination of Commodus occurred on New Years Eve 192 CE, it ushered in a new era as the next emperor(Pertinax) is like wise assassinated. Following the killing of Pertinax is the year of five emperors, a return to violent disposal of emperors and instability in the Roman government.

(via last-of-the-romans)

pheylan13:

*snort*

(via elucipher)

invisiblestories:

"The recruits of 1914 have the look of ghosts. They are queuing up to be slaughtered: they are already dead." - Geoff Dyer, The Missing of the Somme
[Image: Austrian soldier at the wooden trenches during WWI, Eastern Europe, 1915, via deathandmysticism]

invisiblestories:

"The recruits of 1914 have the look of ghosts. They are queuing up to be slaughtered: they are already dead." - Geoff Dyer, The Missing of the Somme

[Image: Austrian soldier at the wooden trenches during WWI, Eastern Europe, 1915, via deathandmysticism]

(via lecterings)

ancientart:

The site of Julius Caesar’s assassination: the Theatre of Pompey in Rome.

When he saw that he was beset on every side by drawn daggers, he muffled his head in his robe, and at the same time drew down its lap to his feet with his left hand, in order to fall more decently, with the lower part of his body also covered. And in this wise he was stabbed with three and twenty wounds, uttering not a word, but merely a groan at the first stroke, though some have written that when Marcus Brutus rushed at him, he said in Greek, “You too, my child?”

All the conspirators made off, and he lay there lifeless for some time, and finally three common slaves put him on a litter and carried him home, with one arm hanging down.”

-Roman historian Suetonius in The Lives of the Twelve Caesars 1.82.2-4 (trans. Rolfe).

The Theatre of Pompey was one of the first permanent theatres in Rome, and was dedicated in 55 BC during the late Republic. It was commissioned by Pompey primarily was a way to gain political popularity during his second consulship, and was inspired by his visit to a Greek theatre in Mytilene. 

The first photo was taken by franfeeley, and the reconstruction of the theatre was done by Lasha Tskhondia, via the Wiki Commons.

(via classicsenthusiast)

inonibird:

Franklin: What sort of bird shall we choose as the symbol of our new America?Adams: The eagle. :|Jefferson: The dove. :)Franklin: The turkey. :DAdams: The eagle. >:|Jefferson: The dove. >_>Adams: THE-EA-GLE. >8(Jefferson: …The eagle. -.-Franklin: The turkey~ |D

This is just so them. I don’t even have words for how much these choices exemplify these men..

inonibird:

Franklin: What sort of bird shall we choose as the symbol of our new America?
Adams: The eagle. :|
Jefferson: The dove. :)
Franklin: The turkey. :D
Adams: The eagle. >:|
Jefferson: The dove. >_>
Adams: THE-EA-GLE. >8(
Jefferson: …The eagle. -.-
Franklin: The turkey~ |D

This is just so them. I don’t even have words for how much these choices exemplify these men..

(via musainrules)


The most important discussion of our time happened in a YouTube comments section.

The most important discussion of our time happened in a YouTube comments section.

(Source: werewolfjokewar, via rightsided)