history meme: 03/10 moments | The Arrets of the Knights Templars and the end of the Order
Founded in France, the Knights Templar were among the most wealthy and powerful of the Western Christian military orders. The organization existed for nearly two centuries during the Middle Ages. Officially endorsed by the Catholic Church around 1129, the Order became a favoured charity throughout Christendom and grew rapidly in membership and power. Templar knights were among the most skilled fighting units of the Crusades. The Templars’ existence was tied closely to the Crusades; when the Holy Land was lost, support for the Order faded. Rumours about the Templars’ secret initiation ceremony created mistrust and King Philip IV of France, deeply in debt to the Order, took advantage of the situation.
On Friday, 13 October 1307 (a date sometimes spuriously linked with the origin of the Friday the 13th superstition) the King, with the support of the Pope Clement, ordered the Templar Grand Master de Molay and scores in Paris to be arrested. 138 persons in the capital were incarcerated. The same happened simultaneously in all the Temples of the Kingdom of France. The Templars were charged with numerous offences (including apostasy, idolatry, heresy, obscene rituals and homosexuality, financial corruption and fraud, and secrecy). Many of the accused confessed to these charges under torture, and these confessions, even though obtained under duress, caused a scandal, precipitating the fall of the Order. Dozens of Templars burned at the stake.
According to legend, the Templar Grand Master called out from the flames that both Pope Clement and King Philip would soon meet him before God: “God knows who is wrong and has sinned. Soon a calamity will occur to those who have condemned us to death!”. Pope Clement died only a month later, and King Philip died in a hunting accident before the end of the year. [more]
Wiesław Chrzanowski (20 December 1923 – 29 April 2012) - a Polish politician and lawyer, a member of the Polish anti-Nazi resistance organization, the Home Army, during World War II, here photographed during the Warsaw Uprising.
August 24, 79: Mount Vesuvius erupts.
Much of what is known of the catastrophic eruption of Mount Vesuvius comes from the descriptive epistles of Pliny the Younger (nephew of Pliny the Elder), who wrote that the event, which buried the nearby cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabiae, and others, was preceded by a series of small earthquakes that were not then recognized as precursors of the destruction that was to come. By all accounts, nearly everyone living within reach of the volcanic destruction was caught unprepared when Mount Vesuvius finally erupted - ejecting thick clouds of stone and ash into the air, and engulfing the cities in pyroclastic material, layered several feet thick.
Between 16,000 and 20,000 people were killed in the destruction, either from inhaling deadly gas fumes, from suffocation through ash inhalation, or from being struck by pieces of debris and rock. The subsequent rainfall turned the layers of ash and volcanic material which covered Pompeii into a kind of natural concrete, hiding and preserving the city until its rediscovery in the 16th century. Herculaneum was not rediscovered and excavated until 1738.
Excerpt from one of Pliny’s letters/accounts of the eruption:
Ashes were already falling, not as yet very thickly. I looked round: a dense black cloud was coming up behind us, spreading over the earth like a flood.’Let us leave the road while we can still see,’ I said, ‘or we shall be knocked down and trampled underfoot in the dark by the crowd behind.’ We had scarcely sat down to rest when darkness fell, not the dark of a moonless or cloudy night, but as if the lamp had been put out in a closed room.
history meme, ten moments (1/10) - the destruction of pompeii, 79 AD
Ashes were already falling, not as yet very thickly. I looked round: a dense black cloud was coming up behind us, spreading over the earth like a flood. ‘Let us leave the road while we can still see,’ I said, ‘or we shall be knocked down and trampled underfoot in the dark by the crowd behind.’ We had scarcely sat down to rest when darkness fell, not the dark of a moonless or cloudy night, but as if the lamp had been put out in a closed room.
- Pliny describes what happened to him and to his mother during the second day of the disaster in a letter to Tacitus.
Some graffiti found in Pompeii’s ruins:
- Weep, you girls. My penis has given you up. Now it penetrates men’s behinds. Goodbye, wondrous femininity!
- Restituta, take off your tunic, please, and show us your hairy privates.
- I screwed the barmaid.
- Apollinaris, the doctor of the emperor Titus, defecated well here.
- I screwed a lot of girls here.
- Sollemnes, you screw well!
- Theophilus, don’t perform oral sex on girls against the city wall like a dog.
Nice to see nothing has changed.
I love this.
I am laughing so hard
someone basically wrote “secundus is gay” on the wall humankind has not changed at all
I fucking love my major jesus christ i love pompeii and roman graffiti and just the romans in general god bless em